Significance of Theology in Enriching Christian Life

The focus of the study is based on offering evidence on how theology helps to equip one to achieve the call of holiness and apostolate. To hold relevance in the study, the analysis will cover on the introduction; God’s calling to holiness and apostolate, and the theological perspective of achieving a holy life. Additionally, the research will include on how theology equips one to make a spiritual life and the challenges of living a religious life. The research will further offer recommendations on the strategies towards the achievement of a spiritual life. Finally, the study will provide a comprehensive conclusion on the study.


The focus of the study is based on offering evidence on how theology helps to equip one to achieve the call of holiness and apostolate. To hold relevance in the study, the analysis will cover on the introduction; God’s calling to holiness and apostolate, and the theological perspective of achieving a holy life. Additionally, the research will include on how theology equips one to make a spiritual life and the challenges of living a religious life. The research will further offer recommendations on the strategies towards the achievement of a spiritual life. Finally, the study will provide a comprehensive conclusion on the study.


The study of theology is resourceful in nurturing the way of life of Christians in various instances. It is important to identify that discipleship can never be reduced to learning and teaching. However, Christian education through theology plays a critical role in shaping and driving the acts and the attitudes of Christians (John Paul II, 2017). Theology is more involved as it goes beyond the content of Christian education rather it involves the process of instructions and the discernment. The individuals are therefore taught in personal identity and help to interpret the realities of life (Pope Paul IV, 1965). The foundation of theological studies is structured to model the lives of Christians towards the achievement of holy life. In this analysis, the central focus of the study is on how theology equips one to achieve the call for Holiness and apostolate.

God’s Call to Holiness and the Apostolate Life

Before the analysis of the significance of theology in the promotion of faith, it would be important to identify the universal call to holiness in the church. It is evident that Christ, God and the spirit is uniquely holy. Through showing love to the Church, Jesus gave up his life so that every Christian would get a chance to be sanctified from sins and achieve a spiritual life. It is within the demands of Christianity that every follower should manifest the virtues of holiness. The manifestation on individuals differs within the disciples and Christians as there are diverse ways towards achieving a divine life free from sin.

Jesus Christ is the spiritual teacher on holiness which He made through preaching to his disciples. He further invoked the Holy Spirit to aid the disciples and the followers to act as a helper in the achievement of a holy life. The followers of Christ are called by God in accordance to His purpose and grace. The calling makes them sons of God and them, therefore, share in the divine nature of God.

It is within the expectation that Christians should achieve a holy life regardless of the social status or rank in the society. Christians are called to the fullness of life and for the perfection of charity life (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, 1964). The duties and the responsibilities of a Christian are many, but it is within the expectation that achieving Holiness is among the requirements. Depending on the stage of growth and development the expectations on living a proper life of Holiness continue to change. The married couples should follow the correct path and the parents are expected to achieve faithful love. It is within the expectation that they should sustain each other in grace in the entire life of the individuals.

Theological Perspective on the Holy Life

The study on theology helps people to understand what God means when he demands a life of holiness (Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 2017). According to the old covenants, it reflects on the significance of adherence to dozens of laws that help to achieve a clean life that defines a better relationship with God. For example, some of the laws required that Christians should not eat some of the animal organs. The old covenant regulations are defined in Leviticus. The book developed many laws that governed the nature of one being holy and not being holy.

The old testaments teachings and regulation were brought to fulfillment through Jesus Christ (Matthew5:17). The teachings of Jesus Christ were focused on showing the moral and ethical behavior that defined the acts of being clean and unclean. The old approach to the laws and regulation of the book of Leviticus were overridden on the cross upon the death of Christ.

For example, after the cross the policies and the legislation that separated the Gentiles and the Jews they were no longer enforced.

In the new covenant, the reflection on living a righteous life is significantly affected by the purity and the conditions of the heart (John Paul II, 2017). According to Christ, he identified that the terms of the heart significantly determines the moral behaviors adopted by an individual. The beginning of living a holy life begins with accepting Jesus as the Lord and savior and further accepting the sacrifice of Jesus Christ (International Theological Commission, 2017). Therefore, achieving a holy life does not require for individuals to follow the physical rituals. Christians can acquire a spiritual life due to the sacrifice that Christ did on the cross. The fact that one accepts Jesus as the Lord and savior, it implies that the followers will continue to pursuit of a life that pleases Him through righteousness. Therefore, the new covenant is all about achieving a life of spiritual cleanness.

The theme on holiness runs through the scriptures in the Bible and theological studies. God is perceived as holy, and people should emulate the life of Jesus Christ as he is also holy and go wants Christians to be holy. Many Christians are caught up in a dilemma on what it means to be holy and the separation from the ordinary life. In the theological studies, the meaning of holiness is considered as the separation from the ordinary. It is evident that God is holy and the fact that He requires us to emulate Him it is difficult as Christians can never achieve the life of holiness as God (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, 1964). Therefore, the demand for the human beings is to behave righteously by doing what is right. The dynamic of holy life is attributed by doing what is right, and therefore, Christians can achieve to be holy without living a righteous. The New Testament foes not do away with bodily practices; it perfects them. The center of the New Testament Christian life is in the Sacraments, which are physical signs that confer spiritual grace.

How Theology Equips One to Fulfill the Call to Holiness and the Apostolate

Before the analysis of theology provides people to the appeal made by Holiness it is rational to identify the objective and the goals of the Catholic universities which acts as the primary facilitators of theology. The core purpose of the institutions is to instill an institutional manner in which there is a Christian presence in the educational facilities. Therefore, the Catholic Universities are identified with the following characteristics that facilitate the growth in holiness. Firstly, the facilities act as a source of Christian inspiration for the individuals and the university community. Secondly, the services operate as a continuous reflection of the Christian faith on the living treasure of human knowledge. Additionally, the institutions encourage fidelity as Christians message as gets to them through the church. Therefore, besides the characteristics, it is evident that teachings, research, and services are commonly oriented at achieving the call to Holiness and developing the apostolate personality.

It is important to identify that theology holds the importance of the church in every stage of Christian growth and helps people to respond to the plan of God. The relevance of theology in aiding to achieve the set objectives and the call to holiness is witnessed through the values it equips Christians. It is evident that Donum Veritatis acts as a guide towards leaving a morally upright life (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, 1964). Christian morality is among the strategies that aid in achieving a holy life. Theology, therefore, helps to define the right and the not correct actions. A life of holiness implies living a life that one does what is good without necessarily being righteous. The Gospel acts as the word of life, and therefore, it serves as the guide for human behavior and inspires the adoption of a Christian life.

Among the most important values that theology equips Christians including achieving the life of truthfulness. There are key identifiers that make Christians identified as appreciating the call of happiness (John Paul II, 2017). The key attributes that help achieve the life of holiness include the life of truth. According to the Donum Veritatis, it identifies that a life of Christian faith that integrates knowledge, faith, and existence which are intrinsically connected. The truth helps to set Christians free, and it is considered as a gift of Jesus Christ. The teachings on theology identify that “Man’s nature calls him to seek the truth while ignorance keeps him in a condition of servitude.” The emphasis on the need for the truth, therefore, aids in achieving a life of holiness and the segregation from ills. Through attaining the life of truthfulness, Christians partially fulfill the call to holiness.

Theology contributes to the communication of faith, and therefore it helps to create an appealing understanding to the people who do not know Christ yet. Therefore, it helps create a pull to the non-Christians to help them seek and find faith in Jesus. The call of salvation marks the beginning of living a life of faith and holiness. Therefore, the incentive to the non-Christians is a resourceful tool in achieving a life of faith. The origin of theology was inscribed on the interior life of Christians and developing the missionary vocation and the discipleship life.

The core task of theology is to create the understanding and the meaning of the revelation, and therefore, the phenomena require the application of the philosophical concepts. Theology, therefore, draws the theories from the surrounding, the culture and other variables that influence the human nature. The integration of the world diversity helps to develop the challenges that may affect the secure adoption of the Christian religion. In response to the challenges, it aids to nurture the Christian life in achieving a life of holiness.

The Catholic Universities and theological schools are objected with the responsibility to reserve to the cause of truth. Therefore, it helps to dignify man and the right of the church. The school activities, therefore, serve a critical role in the promotion of Christian religion and morally upright life. Most significantly, the facilities serve a significant role in equipping the students with resourceful knowledge on how to achieve a holy life. In the current society, it is common that the youths and the adolescents are caught up in the dilemma of morality, and peer pressure serves a critical role in influencing the behavior. The Catholic universities and the organizations that facilitate theological studies are focused on raising a better society that appreciates morals and value for human life. The current generation significantly requires the type of the disintegrated services that nurtures behavior, values, and morals.

Challenges of Fulfilling of the Call to Holiness and the Apostolate

Although theology and other Christian services serve a significant role in modeling people in achieving a life of faith, there are adamant challenges that inhibit the growth of Christian life as apostles of Christ. The core problems are the increase of sciences and technology in the society (Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, 1964). The technological and scientific discoveries contradict the developments as they identify enormous growth in the economy and industrial genres, and thus leave the spiritual realm unaccounted for.

It is important to recognize that some of the increase in sciences compromise the spiritual beliefs and it is the reason the rise of some atheists continue to grow. For example, scientific research significantly criticizes the theory of creation and offer scientific explanations that nullify the religious beliefs of Christians (Pope Paul IV, 1965). Theology serves a critical role in emphasizing on the significance of human value. The responsibility of the church in the achievement of a holy life is therefore intense.

Other challenges that face the Christian religious life include the miss-conceptualization of the teachings of the gospel. It is common that the meaning of some important values has been disputed by the new ideas (Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 2017). Furthermore, the development of new religions, some of them borrows some of the ideas from the theological teachings. Therefore, it has led to confusion on the correct and appropriate religion that people should follow. The general confusion has, therefore, resulted in the misinterpretation of the biblical teachings. There is need to address the challenges to promote knowledge of the Christian gospel teachings.

Recommendations on Achieving a Holy Life

Although technology and science challenge the call to happiness, the technology can be inversely used to promote the call to Holiness. Technology in this context can, therefore, be used as a tool for communication and the promotion of the gospel. For example, using the social media forum, the evangelists can use the panels to educate and train Christians on ways on achieving a righteous life of truth (International Theological Commission, 2017). Other tools of technology include the internet which serves a critical role in offering a knowledge base on the gospel teachings and the models that guide Christian morality. Videos, texts, images, articles, and documentaries can be developed and posted in the online websites to facilitate the knowledge of Christian teachings. Other strategies that can aid addressing the pointed challenges is the intense promotion of the teachings of the gospel (John Paul II, 2017). The theological teachings should not be bounded in the University institutions rather it should be spread in the global context to eliminate the confusion and the wrong conceptualization of the biblical teachings. The full range includes the use of the religious campaigns, the mass media, conventions and other tools like the social media. The strategy will help promote knowledge of the requirements and the need for developing and fulfilling the call to holiness. However, it is important to recognize that theology has served a critical role in the promotion of achieving the call to Holiness.


The current world is intensely intricate in the devaluation of Christian values and achieving the call of holiness has been significantly challenged. However, theology has considerably served a critical role in the promotion of Christian religion gospel, teachings, and further faith. Through the teachings and the development of knowledge, it has enabled Christians to fulfill the call to holiness and apostolate (Pope Paul IV, 1965). The theological perception of religion has attached critical significance on the segregation from the ordinary life of sins. It emphasizes the call to Holiness as a requirement for all Christians who are expected to emulate Christ because He is holy.

The core challenges to fulfilling the call to holiness are aggravated by technological and the scientific researchers. The study contradicts the teachings, and the findings further question religion. Other problems include the current generation that is anchored on deception and wrong articulation of morals. However, the problems can be addressed using technologies to facilitate the promotion of knowledge and gospel on Christian teachings of faith and holiness (Pope Paul IV, 1965). Despite the challenges, it is evident that theology has served a critical role in the promotion of Christians towards the fulfillment of the call to Holiness and the apostolate.


Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. (2017). Instruction Donum Veritatis on the Ecclesial Vocation of the Theologian.

Dogmatic Constitution on the Church. (1964). Lumen Gentium: Solemnly Promulgated by his Holiness Pope Paul IV.

International Theological Commission. (2017). Theology Today: Perspectives, Principles and Criteria .

John Paul II. (2017). Apostolic Coonstitution of the Supreme Pontiff John Paul II on Catholic Universitiees.

Pope Paul IV. (1965). Decree on the Apostolate of the Laity, Apostolican Actuositatem Solemnly Promulgated by his Holiness, Pope Paul IV.

Universal and Maternal Mediation of Mary

Photo Credit Ascension Press


The foundation of Christianity, under the Catholic doctrine, heavily derives from the selfless love that Mary, the mother of Jesus, exhibited by acceding to the spiritual call to bear the baby- Jesus.  “Be it done unto me according to your word” (Lk. 1:38). These words of ultimate trust marked the beginning of the New Testament between humankind and God, as Mary accepted her participation in the redemptive task.  The Catholic clergy, led by the Pope, together with the pastoral committees, in the year 2001 convened an extraordinary consistory to declare that Mary was the mother of all Peoples. The first ever living human being to receive the message about the redemption was Mary, a virgin from Nazareth. In the year 2012, then Pope Benedict XVI underscored the study of Mary (Mariology) as one seminal aspect in the Study of Truth (via veritus). It is through this study of truth that we get the revelation about the path of beauty (via pulchritudinis) and the path of love (via amoris). Hence, in studying the Christ himself, we must be in a position to understand the unique role of the person who brought the message to the universe. The glorification of Mary as a Co-Redemptrix is a way of personalizing the church so that the church assumes the characteristics of human beings, but not merely the buildings.  The dogmatic constitution of the Vatican (Lumen Gentium) is, however, categorical in explicating that the Co-Redemptrix role of Mary must not overshadow the presence of Christ himself.  Hence, the church moderates between the minimalists and the maximalists extremes in this matter.


This is a qualitative research paper, which entails a review of some thoughtful literature as written by different scholars and churches.  The dogmatic Vatican constitution provides adequate knowledge about Mariology and the future of studying Mary as the Co-Redemptrix.  The papal office, together with the Catholic community, expresses its opinions in different conferences as regarding the idea of declaring Mary as a co-redeemer of the universe.  Mariology, according to the Roman Catholic dogma is a systematic study that immortalizes Mary as the bearer of the new message of salvation (Flanagan, 1998). The Catholic Church’s theology respects the place of Mary in the beginning of salvation, and thus she is treated with dignity, taking into consideration the fact that she was the mother of redemption. In this discourse, the literature will revisit the Papal Apostolic Letters and other teachings that relate to Mariology in Catholic literature and teachings.

The literature review shall include different ecclesiastical readings together with scholarly articles defining the Catholic concept of Mary. The evangelical guidelines by the Catholic cardinals and other pious souls, direct the attention of the world towards the conception of Mary as a co-redeemer, as seen in the recent conferences where the clergy asserted that the Pope declares her a Co-Redemptrix officially.  The interpretive message in this discourse shall happen entirely in the context of Catholic faith (Novo Millennio Ineunte) and the guidelines provided by the clergy. The assertion here is that Mary was the first ever to meet the Christ or rather hear the Good News of Christ. Hence, Mary situated the foundation of the redemption. This unique role is not derogative to any other question in the Catholic piety and is seen in the current curriculum on Mariology. The Catholics today invoke the blessings of Mary in their prayers as a way of appreciating the fact that she was as significant, but not equal to Jesus himself.

Theoretical framework

This is a pure religious study with all the concepts derived from the doctrines of the Roman Catholic guidelines.  The Catholic Church foundation sets the principles from which the theological studies must take place, and as such, the study is constrained to them. The Biblical allusion shall form a greater part of this research, with special interest in Gospel Books according to St. Luke.  Other Epistle readings confirming the free will of Mary into the call to salvation shall also accompany the Gospel allusions. The Catholic deity, at the pinnacle of the top most authority, stresses on the ecumenical imperative that resonates around the recognition of Mary as a Co-redeemer of the world. Through her experience in the pilgrimage of faith, Mary demonstrated a special preservation and commitment to unity with Christ, even during the time of His death.  The Way of the Cross is a Catholic ideology, defining the path that Jesus followed until His Crucifixion.  In this journey, Mary was always by His side, agreeing to the immolation of the innocent victim that was her very son.

The magisterial Marian foundation as a Co-Redemptrix is hence the most important in the study of Mary according to the Catholic Church.  However, in the recent context, there has been contention from different groups questioning how Biblical is that act of glorifying Mary to the level of a co-redeemer.  This is one instance of criticism that can serve to elaborate further on the matter at hand. Different social science perspectives like feminism and patriarchy shall be part of the discussion, especially when it comes to the critic of Mariology by some psychologists and sociologists, be acknowledged.        

Literature review

Foundation of Mary as a Co-Redemptrix

The realization of Mary as a Co-Redemptrix in the Catholic Church began following the many instances of papal teachings about the same.  Pope John Paul II, more than any other Pontiff in the Catholic Church, is regarded as the main proponent that brought awareness to the Church, about the idea of Mary as a Co-Redemptrix (Calkins, 1996).  This doctrine intertwines with the mystery of the Rosary, reawakening the suffering of Mary alongside Jesus.’ The sufferings of Mary from the birth of Christ to His Crucifixion are enough testimonies that Mary did not only agree to bear Jesus, but to walk with him until His last days on the earth, sharing in each portion of His suffering.  It is hence, through the suffering of Mary that salvation comes to the full completion according to the Gospel according to Luke. “Woman, behold your son…son, behold your mother” (Jn.19:26-27). The scripture according to Saint John elaborates that Mary and Jesus were both redeemers.

Other than the Biblical foundation, the development of Mariology stands on four firm facets of Catholic dogma, that is, Mother of God, Perpetual Virginity, Immaculate Conception and other assumptions (Flanagan, 1998). Since its inception that took place as early as 16th Century, the idea has been shaped in several occasions following papal statements, the writings of the saints and other theological analyses based on the Catholic dogma. Pope Benedict XVI, in many of His summons, had indicated that we cannot understand Jesus devoid of the unique role played by Mary.  In following the path of truth, (via veritus), we must personalize the church by immortalizing Mary as a Co-Redemptrix.  “Upon this rock, I will lay my foundation” (Matthew 16:18). Jesus declares that Peter shall carry the Christian faith to the next generation. The Catholic faith also understands the role of Mary in the foundation of the church, placing her side-by-side with Peter. The objective holiness of the church derives from the dual role played by Mary and St. Peter in founding the same church. We understand the two as exhibiting spiritual soundness and charisma that as carried the church up to the place it is today. Love was the major virtue of the duet, and this love serves to create spiritual soundness in the church today. Hence, in the Catholic teachings, the dual role of St. Peter and Mary are not secondary doctrines but are part and parcels of the Gospel dissemination criteria.

Defining Mary as Co-Redemptrix

Many theologians and deities have raised objections towards the inclusion of such terms in the Vatican Constitution, Lumen Gentium (LG).  As such, Chapter VIII of the LG avoided the mentioning of such terms pending the settling of the differences. At this time, many issues remained controversial in the Catholic faith, including the naming of Mary as “Mother of God.” However, the clear definition of Immaculate Conception, which was the predeterminant of Co-Redemptrix, came to be promulgated in the year 1854 under the leadership of Pius IX. This move set the pace for the inclusion of Co-Redemptrix, allowing the theologians and the Council to have a basis for argument.  

Mariology as a foundation of the Co-Redemptrix

The teleological steps in defining Mary as a Co-Redemptrix traces from the early movements by the Christians around the First Century, to deliberately reflect upon Mary in their arts, teachings, and writings.  Christians around this period had identified the unique role of Mary as a bridge between the past and the new world; the path that would be chat by the salvation. In this regard, the Christians crafted a particular piece of prayer to Mary entitled ‘sub tuum praesidium.’ In other regions like Egypt, many Christians were already venerating Mary as early as the Third Century. This is also the same period that the venerable Catholic term ‘Theotokos’ came into inception (Miravalle 2013). The term describes the concept that Mary bore ‘God’ and hence was worth the adoration. The mushrooming Christian Churches across the world assumed a personal outlook that identified them with the coronation of Mary. A pilgrimage to Rome reveals Santa Maria Maggiore as one church whose antiquity exemplifies the ideal place of Mary in the Catholic faith. Constructed as early as Fifth Century, the church still stands defiantly, and its magnanimous shape forms the template for the Christians Catholic churches established across the universe today. 

As time grew, Mariology spread like a wildfire across the universe, while many more prayers to Mary were coming into place. “Ave Maria”, “Ave Maris Stella” and “Salve Regina” are some of the songs that extolled Mary (Miravalle 2013). At the same time, the immortalization of Mary was witnessed in many aspects of art and masterpieces in the Christian faith. Leonardo Da Vinci, Boticelli and Raphael were among the first people to present the concept of Mary in painting.  These were just, but the first steps in explaining Mary’s role in the salvation journey.

             In the modern art movement, the veneration of Mary was relived through the deliberate act of the Catholic pope, Pope John Paul II in his writing “Redemptoris Mater.” In this writing, the pope was forthcoming and intentional to mention that Mary enjoined in the misery and the suffering of Jesus, and hence, Mariology should note, with greater concern, that Mary herself was a redeemer. The papal office and the Vatican Council are some of the top most authorities that influence the conceptualization of Mary as a Co-Redemptrix.  Through the long process of Catholic theology, the deacons, and the theologians’ highlight on the seminal role that Mary played, not only in the birth of Jesus, but also the step of faith that Mary took in response to the redemption call. Early saints and Christians reflected in the nexus between the doctrine of Mariology and the study of Christianity, with many of them asserting that the two are inseparable. ‘Compendium Mariologiae’ is a study book established in the year 1964 by one of the founders of Mariology, Gabriel Roschini. In this religious book, Gabriel insists that the significance of Mary in the Christian church is not only limited to her role in bearing Jesus, but also encompasses the spiritual union that Mary got into with Jesus throughout His entire journey.  Later, Pope Pius X came to echo this voice during the ‘Ad Diem’, stating that Mary is the only sure road to the unification of the Christian church today. Hence, another rejoinder, Raymond Cardinal Burke also mentioned that it is the duty of Christians today to affirm this faith through the coronation of Mary as a Co-Redemptrix.

Titling Mary as a Co-Redemptrix

About fifty fathers at the Second Vatican Council voted for entitling Mary as a Co-Redemptrix in a bid to strengthen the Catholic faith in Christ.  This was the first step towards incorporating the idea in the Vatican constitution Legum Gentium (LG). According to (LG, n. 57), Mary walked with Christ from the time of His vigil conception up to His last moments on earth.  As such, the only way to appreciate such a kind spirit of cooperation is through elevating her to the level of a Co-redeemer, in what came to be called Co-Redemption.  The general feeling was that the title “Co-Redemptrix” in the Catholic doctrine was not derogative to any approval, just like it was the case with the title “Mediatrix” available in (LG, n. 62). The title was accepted unanimously, even though some members of the council raised questions citing the ambiguity in the title and that of Jesus. However, it became apparent that the title Co-Redemptrix posed no difficulty in relating the role of Mary and that of Christ. Formerly, there had been many contentions around other titles like “Salvatrix” and “Redemptrix,” with some people arguing that the Virgin herself cautioned against elating her to this level, since it would create confusion between her role and that of God or Christ himself.     

 In the 15th Century the term, Co-Redemptrix, first appeared in a hymn, signaling the fact the term ‘Redemptrix’ had evolved to ‘Co-Redemptrix.’ The conceptualization of this term as a mother of Redeemer then began to become apparent, showing progress in its full use among the Catholics. In the hymn, the term was specific in its relating of Mary as “she who shared in the suffering of Jesus”. Mary was then an invincible woman who had a special position in the church, as a woman who gave birth to a redeemer, hence the title ‘mother of salvation.’ More doctrinal issues began resonating around this idea of passionate suffering with Christ. This title should not be construed as a challenge to the supremacy of Christ by the Catholic dogma. It merely associates Mary with the redemptive work of Christ.  The Catholic Church is not claiming any equality between Christ Jesus and Mary, His mother.  Christ is the Redeemer, while Mary is an associate in the redemption task.

The collaboration of Mary as a mother offers her a unique position in the discourses regarding the redemptive task of Christ. Saint Paul affirms the participation of human beings in the salvation journey of Jesus Christ in a number of scriptures he writes after the death. In his letter to the Romans, Paul stressed that we were buried together with Jesus and hence will resurrect together with him. (Romans. 6:4). In this respect, the first human being to remember in the death and suffering of Jesus is none, other than the mother, Mary. Paul carries the same message to Ephesus where he writes “God made us alive together with Christ … and raised us up with him, and made us sit with him in the heavenly places in Christ Jesus” (Eph. 2:5-6). As much as the salvation task was the idea of the Father, there is an equal call to task among the human beings who receive the very salvation.  Legend has it that many died in Ephesus.

 The message of the apostle Paul was crystal clear. His message was specifically concerned with divine transcendence, and we shouldn’t view it as precipitating competition with God. If anything, we must perceive this activity as directly emanating from the spiritual guidance. Paul was one of the Apostles who regarded Jesus as the ‘Lord’, acknowledging that Jesus was the supreme master of the church. Sincere cooperation between human beings and Jesus is not evil in any way, and as such, the Pauline expression of ‘Co-Redemptrix’ is a mere extension of the relationship.  The privileges assigned to Mary by the Catholic Church are not a rift between the church members and Christ, as some critics may put it. They are privileges that come as a package with the redemption work of Jesus Christ and follow the path defined by the Holy Spirit. Much more, what we should be most concerned with is the challenge that Mary’s Co-Redemptrix role poses to us as the ardent followers of Christ. In this endeavor, we must bear in mind that the Catholic faith does not superimpose Mary as Jesus’ equal. As much as the Christians may be described as redeemers, it is still justified to consider Mary a co-redeemer. Mary is one normal human being that stands as the umbrella to all the faithful who consider themselves as redeemers. This is because just like the redemption, the Co-Redemption also has its unique position in the lives of Christians and the apostles today. The tenant of this reasoning is that each Christian has a duty to ensure the continuity of the work that was started by Jesus. 

Scriptural Foundations of the aspect of Marian Mediation

The truth of our faith originates from the Divine Revelation, which is based on the Sacred Scripture and Tradition.  The Magisterium of the Church, which is mandated with the role of guarding faith and confirming the faithful based on the word of God, recommends the two references.  A complete understanding of Mary and her role in salvation is only possible after a full understanding of the scripture and how it portrays her. We can only achieve this by carefully studying the two main covenants between God and His people; the New and the Old Testaments.  Mary is considered the bridge between these two covenants (Rossier, 2001). They offer basic knowledge about the divine plan of salvation and the role of Mary in this salvation history. This organic synthesis of theology of Marian Mediation, will only analyze the elements of available in the Bible to understand Mary as the Co-Redemptrix of humanity.

According to the scriptures, the Marian mediation is not only evident from her unique participation in the birth and education of the Messiah, Jesus Christ. Even after incarnation, Mary continued with her role of mediation in the Gospels, which is considered her intercession of mankind. John’s gospel usually minimizes the significance of Mary but her presence comes at the crucial moments of the gospel. These moments represent the beginning and the end of the ministry of Christ. There were other intercessors in the salvation history before Mary in the Old Covenant. Intercession prayer is considered one of the most efficacious forms of mediation that a person can make with God. However, the theme of intercession has not been addressed by many Biblical scholars.

We can describe Marian mediation in three different aspects that are intertwined. These aspects are the ‘Mediatrix of redemption or the Co-Redemptrix of mankind,’ ‘Mediatrix of all graces (Dispensatrix of every grace),’ and the ‘Mediatrix of defense and comfort (Advocate, or protectress of the children of God).’ (Lumen Gentium, 62).  Understanding these aspects enables us to grasp the concept of the mystery of Marian mediation. Jesus accomplished the salvation of mankind through His death on the Cross.  But the initial plan of God, was to ensure that the mission is accomplished by collaboration of a woman, still honoring her free will. Galatians 4:4 expresses this concept, ‘When the fullness of time had come, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman.’  

Co-Redemptrix aspect in the scripture

The Scripture shows that God’s plan for salvation of mankind would involve two parties, one human, and one divine.  This is described first in Genesis where God says ‘I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed: she shall crush your head…’ (Gen. 3:15). The ‘woman’ and the ‘seed’ refer to the two persons who must collaborate to bring salvation to the world. This scripture foreshadows the prophecy of Mary and Jesus, her divine son, in the victory over evil, the serpent. It also shows the will of God to the two parties will have similar ‘enmity’ of ultimate opposition between them and the serpent. This is a foreshadowing of the divine work of redemption by Jesus in collaboration with his Mother Mary. The church calls this collaboration between Mary and Jesus, the ‘Marian Co-Redemption’ which suggests that Mary is the ‘Co-Redemptrix with Redeemer.’ Her role here is purely secondary and subordinate to Jesus Christ, which means that they don’t share equality or glory. God intended to let human beings contribute in His works.  The sharing doesn’t reduce the glory of God because He is infinite, but it allows the glory of God to shine even further (Rossier, 2001).

            The New Testament, again describes the divine redemption during the Annunciation (Luke 1:26-38). The Scripture also describes the cooperation of the two parties. The Virgin Mary is called and asked to accept to carry the Savior of the world in her womb. The story also reveals God’s respect of Mary’s free will; he doesn’t force her to take the responsibility. She wasn’t ordered, but after the angel delivered the message to her, she received an active role and God waited for her to give her consent. Through her free will to collaborate in the divine plan to redeem the human race, she became the Co-Redemptrix. However, her role in redemption is unique and comprehensive, as Simeon prophesies to her that ‘a sword will pierce through your own soul also’ (Luke 2:25). This prophecy prepares her of the impending pain and suffering she would undergo in the mission of salvation.

            After Jesus’ crucifixion, Mary shared in the pain that Jesus experienced. She lies at the bottom of the cross, consoles her child, and goes through the same agony of death of Christ.  This reveals that Mary too participated in the mission of her son to save the world, making her the Co-Redemptrix. This shows that the initial plan of God was not only to redeem the world through the crucifixion of the Messiah, but for mankind to share in the entire mission of Jesus Christ. Even so, the sharing doesn’t make Jesus less of a Redeemer .Mary is the Co-Redemptrix because she shared with Christ, the mission of redemption, whose climax was the Calvary. Her suffering with the Savior during His crucifixion makes her the ‘mother of all peoples.’

Mediatrix aspect in the Sacred Scripture

Apart from being a collaborator in redemption, Mary is also considered a ‘Mediatrix of all graces.’ The word Mediatrix can either refer to the objective redemption, which is the overall title to grace for all, or the subjective redemption, which is the sharing of this grace with individual subjects, or both.  In the scripture 1 Timothy 2:5, Jesus is ‘the sole mediator between God and His people,’ but all believers are called to take part in the mediation of Jesus.  When we pray for one another, we fulfill this calling as well as through our evangelism and charity work. God asked Mary to take part in the mediation mission of Christ, in a unique way.

            Therefore, the title ‘Mediatrix of all graces’ is justified because Mary gave birth to the Messiah. By carrying out this role, she mediated Jesus (the author of all graces) to the world and became the ‘God-bearer.’ The Annunciation, revealed at the annunciation, which signifies the mediation of Mary, reveals her mediation role when she is put in the ‘middle’ (between God and man). She freely accepts to take this unique responsibility. When Mary visits Elizabeth in Luke 1:41, her physical appearance mediates grace to John the Baptist while he is still in His mother’s womb.  Mary presents to John the sanctity of the unborn Messiah, leading to the sanctification of John the Baptist. This story shows that the ‘Mediatrix of all graces’ title suits Mary.

            At the wedding in Cana (John 2:1-11), even though Jesus knew that the new couple didn’t have enough wine to serve the guests, she talked to Jesus to help them out. She placed herself between her son and the troubled couple. She interceded for them to Jesus, revealing her mediation as well as the role of this intercession when John says, ‘This, the first of His signs, Jesus did at Cana in Galilee, and manifested His glory; and his disciples believed in him’ (John 2:11).

            Before Jesus died on the cross, he looked at His grieving mother and said, ‘Woman, behold, your son…Son, Behold, your mother!’ (John 19:26).  In doing so, Jesus gave Mary the new role of the mother of the church and is called to exercise her divine duty of as a spiritual mother of all peoples. He task would be to nourish her children, the Christians, by mediating the graces of salvation of Christ to man. This means that she is the ‘Mediatrix of all graces.’

Advocate aspect

In the Scriptures, the term ‘advocate’ just means ‘called in to help.’ Jesus and the Holy Spirit are advocates with God in the divine plan of redemption.  Jesus Christ is our Redeemer and the Holy Spirit cleanses us. We call Mary an advocate because she intercedes for us to her Son. The Bible describes Mary’s role as an advocate for our needs. She became our advocate when she consented to give birth to the Messiah at the Annunciation. She also demonstrated her advocacy during the wedding at Cana by interceding for the guests at the event. Through her intercession, she obtained the needs of the people from Jesus (John 2:8-10).

            Through prayer, Mary intercedes for us at Pentecost for the descending of the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:14). This shows that her advocacy made everyone receive one of the divine advocates of the Holy Trinity. In the gospel of John 19:26, Mary is given to the mankind as a mother. She becomes the advocate for all believers even after her assumption into heaven. Vatican II quotes, “By her maternal charity, she cares for the brethren of her Son, who still journey on earth surrounded by dangers and difficulties, until they are led into their blessed home” (Lumen Gentium, n. 62.)  Therefore, Mary is an advocate for the people, the ‘Mediatrix of defense and comfort.’

Magisterial Foundations of the respective aspect of Marian Mediation

For over two hundred years, the papal Magisterium provides clearer indications about Mary’s intimate collaboration in the redemptive mission of Christ.  The pope’s address on 25th October 1995, he gave his important contribution to this essential part of the catholic teachings by saying, “the Virgin Mary … is acknowledged and honored as being truly the Mother of God and of the Redeemer” (LG, 53). Vatican II Council applied this reference to link Mary’s motherhood to Redemption. After Mary became the Mother of the Messiah and therefore the Mother of God, the church and theologians explained her cooperative nature in redemption. This was a gradual process that took a long period of time because the early ecumenical councils abandoned other dogmas and concentrated on unfolding the truth on Christ’s identity in all its richness. Throughout history, Mariology takes the direction of Christology. At the council of Ephesus, the divine motherhood of Mary was acknowledged to affirm the oneness of Christ’s identity. Furthermore, the church acquired a deeper understanding of Mary’s presence in the redemptive journey of the Savior.

Towards the end second century, St, Irenaeus identified Our Lady’s contribution in salvation. He acknowledged Mary’s consent during the Annunciation and recognized that Her obedience to and the belief in the divine message was contrary to Eve’s disobedience and disbelief. The responses from the two women influenced the destiny of humanity. Eve’s response brought death, while that of Mary brought salvation. The fathers of the Church didn’t develop this affirmation in a consistent manner until the 10th century. They affirmed that Mary maintained the unity between her and Jesus Christ, both in ‘attitude and wish.’ St. Bernard’s disciple elaborated further on the offering at Calvary. He identified ‘two altars:  one in Mary’s heart, the other in Christ’s body.  Christ sacrificed His flesh, Mary her soul.’ This meant that Mary sacrificed herself spiritually in communion with Jesus, and ensured redemption of mankind.  He says, “What the mother asks, the Son approves and the Father grants” (De septem verbis Domini in cruce, 3:  PL 189, 1694). After pondering over this mystery, the church began teaching about Mary’s collaboration in the redemption work.

From the 20th century, many authors have used the Co-Redemptrix and Mediatrix roles of Mary as one, with ‘mediation’ as the general term for both. Some scholars argue that Mariologists use the role of ‘Mediatrix’ to refer to the second phase of Mary’s mediation, which is the cooperation of Mary in the distribution of grace. Co-Redemptrix role is reserved for the initial phase, where Mary consented to the Immaculate Conception. The two roles are considered the two major divisions of the broader category of ‘Marian mediation.


The dogmatic constitution of Vatican, Lumen Gentium chapter 8, gives an analysis of the five Marian doctrines.  The chapter also legitimizes the use of the word Co-Redemptrix to describe Virgin Mary, but stopped using it to avoid conflict with the Protestant counterparts. In other words, the second Vatican council agreed to the cooperative role of Mary in redemption, but avoided the use of the term Co-Redemptrix. The council consents that Mary’s role as the ‘mother of God’ (Theotokos) that she chose to take from the Annunciation, has earned her the rightful title ‘mother in the order of grace’ or ‘spiritual mother’ in her mediation of grace to mankind. The council gives us further understanding about the role of Mary as Mediatrix. As discussed above, Mary’s Co-Redemption involves her role in collaboration with her son in His redemptive mission.  Mary is Co-Redemptrix with Christ but not equal to the Redeemer. Her only responsibility is to contribute or rather participate in accomplishment of the mission. According to Gherardini, Co-Redemptive doctrine is ‘Mary’s proximate, immediate, objective, active and universal cooperation’ with Jesus.

            The magisterial aspect of Marian Co-Redemption describes Mary as the ‘mother of the church’ and advocate.  The goal of redemption is accomplished in her. The Catholic doctrine argues that by the merits of Jesus, Mary is incomparably holy. This gives her the unique capability to cooperate actively with Christ, the divine mediator between God and man. She becomes our Co-Redemptrix, Mediatrix and Advocate (Lumen Gentium, 56-58, 60-62).  Her mediation is the divine plan by which humanity gets right with Christ, and enjoys God’s blessings that Jesus acquired for us in His redemptive mission that was completed at Calvary.  Mary’s mediation is the final step when the love of the Trinity, through the Holy Spirit, enters God’s creation, a point that brings to pass the incarnation and redemption. Mary’s active role of intercession with Jesus is referred to as the ‘ascending mediation’ while her direct active role of mediation of graces is called the ‘descending mediation.’ Both roles constitute her Co-Redemption in the sacrifice at the cross, which constitutes the mystery of the Eucharist (descending mediation).

            In the 20th century, Pope Saint John Paul II, proclaimed the Fifth Marian dogma that gave Mary the three roles ‘Co-Redemptrix, Mediatrix of All Graces, and Advocate for the People of God.’ By 1998, the Vatican had received over four million petitions from 157 nations appealing for a papal presentation of the new dogma.  Since then, there have been numerous debates between the Marian maximalists, who seek the elevation of Mary and the Marian minimalists, who disagree with such proposals. Between the definition of the Immaculate Conception dogma (1854) and the definition of the Assumption (1950), there were intense Marian studies and devotion. More attention was paid to the role of Mary in the salvation of man, especially on the topics of Co-Redemption and mediation. The council concluded that the cooperation of Mary showed her complete loyalty to God’s work of redemption. The grace of God made this possible and her active and free participation was out of her faith and obedience as the chapter says, ‘this union of the mother with the son in the work of salvation is made manifest from the time of Christ’s virginal conception up to his death.’ (Lumen Gentium 57). The consent of Mary is consummated at the cross. She was candid enough to watch her son suffer and persevere in faith, believing in the redemptive plan, associated herself with her child’s persecution and agreed to all of it (LG 61).  These words prove the Catholic faith on the cooperation of Mary with Jesus’ work of redemption. Even though the council didn’t use the term Co-Redemptrix, it is still justified because it is still embraced as a theological term. Pope John Paul II has also used the term Co-Redemptrix for at least six times between 1982 and 1991 (Calkins, 1996).

            Mary acts as the role model of the church, and she shows us the way. Through her maternal compassion, Mary shared in the suffering of the Savior of the world. We are also called to connect our sufferings with Christ so that our experiences will also become ‘redemptive’ and our lives will acquire a new meaning. Many saints and martyrs have also identified with the Crucifixion of our Lord through their personal suffering. This implies that the church and all partakers of the body are Co-Redeemers with Jesus, bearing a subordinate role and relying on the maternal mediation by ‘the mother of the church.’

The Mediatrix

The term Mediatrix refers to the feminist role of a ‘mediator.’ A mediator is a person who intervenes between two parties with the intention of restoring peace and friendship.  Mary’s title Mediatrix originated from the East in the Fourth Century and later in the Ninth Century in the West.  The Catholic Church and the magisterium adopted this term in the 17th century, commonly known as ‘the Mediatrix of all graces.’ Hence, Mary obtains graces on our behalf. Before Mary, people lived by the graces of her future merits, while people after her Assumption, obtain all graces through her mediation. This is because Mary became the ‘handmaid’ (Leo VIII, Adiutricem Populi 1895) after her assent at the Annunciation and an associate of the savior in the obtaining of grace. This made her the collaborator of the divine mediator in the distribution of grace to all human races (Anderson, Stafford, & Burgess, 1992).

According to Pius X, Ad Diem illum (1904), the union of Mary with the suffering of Christ made her the most appropriate restorer of the lost people, and consequently ‘the distributor of all gifts.’ This suggests that the redemptive work of Jesus makes Mary a worthy distributor of grace that restores people’s friendship with God.

Pope Benedict XV, inter sodalicia (1918), argues that the role of Mary as the Co-Redemptrix makes her the distributor of graces of redemption. The dogmatic constitution, Eight Chapter, contains a very significant reference to the Mediatrix. The Second Vatican Council had requested the definition of the mediation of Mary. The first draft described her as the ‘minister and dispenser of heavenly gifts.’ The later draft described her as the ‘Mediatrix of all graces’ since cooperated with Jesus to acquire the graces.  She is invoked by the believers as the advocate because she is the associate of Christ; she is the intercessor of the people through Christ. Therefore, the Lumen Gentium Article 62, gives Mary the titles used by the church; the advocate, helper, benefactress and the Mediatrix. However, these titles don’t reduce or add anything to the efficacy and dignity of Christ the one divine Mediator.

In conclusion, the Second Vatican Council used words that provide doctrinal support to the teaching of the church on Mariology. These doctrinal descriptions of the Co-Redemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate are very deep. Regardless of the council not using the term Co-Redemptrix to avoid confusion, and using the terms Mediatrix and advocate sparingly, the doctrinal definitions provided are still adequate. These doctrines form the basis of catechism (Miegge, 1955). The teachings also have a deep traditional usage in the papal magisterium of the 19th and the 20th centuries. They also consists a unique contribution by the current papal magisterium of Pope Saint John Paul II. Vatican II teachings do not prevent the definition of the maternal mediation but seek a better theological contribution and completion of the Marian teachings (Calkins 1996).

Mother the Co-Redemptrix, Mediatrix, and Advocate are portrayed in the Sacred Scriptural revelation through the historical collaboration in the redemption of the world in ‘actu primo ‘that was consummated at the cross and given the responsibility of acquiring the graces that redeem the world. Through her Mediatrix of grace, she helps her children to protect the salvation of those who are redeemed.


Anderson, H. G., Stafford, J. F., & Burgess, J. A. (1992). The One Mediator, the Saints, and Mary (Vol. 8). Augsburg Fortress Pub.

Calkins, A. (1996).  Pope John Paul II’s Teaching on Marian Co-Redemption’. Mary: Co-Redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate.  Theological Foundations II, Papal, Pneumatological, Ecumenical, Santa Barbara, CA: Queenship Publishing Company, 113-47.

Clarke, K. M. Divinely Given “Into Our Reality”: Mary’s Maternal Mediation according to Pope Benedict XVI.

Eitenmiller, M. (2016).  Mary, Mediatrix of All Graces. Doctoral dissertation, Ave Maria University).

Flanagan, D. (1998).  A New Marian Dogma? The Furrow, 49(1), 15-21.

Kozack, J. C. (2015).  The Primacy of Christ as the Foundation of the Co-Redemption: The Mariology of Fr. Juniper B. Carol, OFM (1911-1990) (Doctoral dissertation, University of Dayton).

Miegge, G. (1955).  The Virgin Mary: The Roman Catholic Marian Doctrine. London, Lutterworth P.

Miller, J. D. (2004).  Mary’s Maternal Mediation: Is it True to Say Mary is Co-Redemptrix, Mediatrix of All Graces and Advocate?  Academy of the Immaculate.

Miravalle, M. (2006).  Introduction to Mary. Catholic Bookmark.

Miravalle, M. (2013).  Mariology: A Guide for Priests, Deacons, Seminarians and Consecrated Persons. Catholic Bookmark.

Miravalle, M. I. (1993).  Mary: Co-Redemptrix, Mediatrix, Advocate.  Queenship Pub.

Ouellette, A. L., & Puppo, J. (2012).  From Divinity to Humanity and Humanity to Divinity.

Rossier, F. (2001).  Biblical Perspectives on Marian Mediation. Marian Studies, 52(1), 6.

SJ, R. C. V., & Fastiggi, R. L. (1958).  IV. MEDIATRIX OF ALL GRACES. Studies, 9, 107-128.

Vengco Jr, S. A. (1995).  Mary as Co-Redemptrix and Mediatrix of Grace: Contemporary Implications.  Landas: Journal of Loyola School of Theology, 9(2).

Christ, our lamb, has been sacrificed!

What would Easter have been like the very first time?  I think that it would be a time of great perplexity.  We hear in John’s gospel that Mary of Magdala was the first to find the tomb empty.  She ran to spread the news, but I think her message was not of belief—but rather a message of concern for someone had potentially stolen the Body of Christ.  The 2018_East1_EN_4cgospel of John ends with disbelief and confusion—the disciples did not understand what had happened.  Yet, there was one “beloved” disciple that did understand and believe.  It is in the early followers felt the same way!  We should not lose sight of the notion that we live by faith, and seek understanding.  We should almost create a sense of a blending of Christmas and Easter—in the sense that Easter morning, and the resurrection should become our North Star; the guiding light by which we should live our lives.  The death of Jesus was not the end, He was raised to new life.  His destiny is in fact OUR destiny, the new life that is created through Him will be shared with all those that seek Him.  We should let Christ in, so that we may open ourselves to the unexpected ways that God will work in our lives.

Thoughts/Questions to reflect on:

Psalm—We hear, “The stone which the builders rejected has become the corner stone.”  God in fact does exalt the lowly and humbles those that are exalted.  How are you living this in your daily life?

Today we “feast with joy in the Lord”.  How are you keeping the Easter feast in your family?

When the disciples finally entered the tomb, they “saw and believed.”  What has been your journey into belief?

he_is_risen_450x450Nothing can keep us from God.  Death is not even powerful enough to accomplish this.  The stone on the tomb was not removed by an act of human hand, it was divine—it is God’s LOVE that does this.  Today we come face-to-face with this empty tomb, but NOTHING will or could ever separate us from the LOVE of God in Christ. There exists NO BARRIER to the LOVE of God!  Remember that and celebrate in JOY the Risen Lord Jesus Christ!


What to do when others Persecute you?

Let’s face it—we have all fell victim of persecution.  In fact, many of us, maybe not knowingly, have been involved in some form of persecution towards another person ourselves.  The past is the past and it cannot be changed. What is important is that we recognize those past actions and meet them head on and face them in a Christ like manner.   I can speak for myself when I say that I have fell victim to many acts of persecution.  I have dealt with some acts better than others—that’s the human part of me.


Let’s face it—we have all fell victim of persecution.  In fact, many of us, maybe not knowingly, have been involved in some form of persecution towards another person ourselves.  The past is the past and it cannot be changed. What is important is that we recognize those past actions and meet them head on and face them in a Christ like manner.   I can speak for myself when I say that I have fell victim to many acts of persecution.  I have dealt with some acts better than others—that’s the human part of me.

On reflection, this Palm Sunday we see a connection in the Gospel and the second reading.  That on the road to Calvary, Jesus shows us the way of humility and nonviolence.  And with that we should questions our own actions….  How do your own actions, and the words you speak [Facebook messenger, Text message, or any other medium]/profess this Jesus as Lord of heaven and earth?  Are you in touch with the covenant relationship that God calls us into?  Are you aware that God calls us to act with extreme humility and nonviolence [including words and actions]—after all Christ offers himself, body and blood, for the healing of the world.

Recall the Psalm today—All who see me scoff at me; they mock me with parted lips, they wag their heads. – The Lord God is indeed my help; therefore, I am not disgraced.  I have set my face like flint, knowing that I shall not be put to shame.

The taunts we give/deliver unto others are like the taunts of the crowd mocking Jesus to come down from the Cross, believing only then that he is the Messiah, the Son of God.  But just as Christ did not give in to the persecution, nor should we.  We should not meet persecution with anger or retaliation—this is a hard concept, but an ever true one.

Remember that Christ is there with the outcast, the poor, the shamed, and the broken within our own families, communities, and world.  May we be blessed with the eyes to see our given Christ, to see the face which in whose eyes we see suffering, and in those same eyes we see the need to open our hearts, provide tenderness, and care for all the children of Christ.

December 25, 2019-CHRISTMAS reflection

John 1:1-18

The Light Shines- MERRY CHRISTMAS!

In just a few words this Gospel passage tells us what God gave us for Christmas.  “The Word became flesh and lived among us.”  There can never be a better gift given.  maxresdefault.jpgAnd this exchange of gifts, as described by St Augustine—“God became man, so that man might become God.”

Each time we go to the Eucharist we continue participating in this exchanging of gifts with God.  When the presiding priest pours a little water into the wine, he prays: “By the mystery of this water and wine may we come to share in the divinity of Christ who humbled himself to share in our humanity”. We offer up at each celebration bread and wine as an offering, and we then in return receive the Body and Blood of the Lord. This is why we, as Christians, should “remember the dignity that 2014-12-19-17.43.53Christmas gives you.” [Pope St Leo]. Christmas, the Incarnation, gives us the best of both worlds!  “God became man so that man might become God.”

Christmas takes place just a few days after the winter solstice, which is the shortest day of the year [making it the longest night of the year].  But on that day of the solstice, the balance of significance begins to shift.  Each day will be met with a longer period of light shining, and the night therefore doesn’t last as long.  It is the heavens’ way of reminding us, a found in John’s Gospel, that “the light shines in the darkness and the darkness could not overcome it.”  Christmas IS the birth of He who will call Himself the Light of the World.Star of Bethlehem 1.jpg

Let the light continue to shine in the darkness.  Let us rejoice in the coming of our Lord and Savior.  Give thanks to God for this great exchange of gifts.  The Lord of the angels became man today so that man could eat the break of angels!



December 24, 2019- Reflection

Luke 1:67-79

The Canticle of Zachary

If you follow the prayer cycle of the Church you would find that each day morning the Divine Office r ends with this wonderful canticle.  There is NEVER at time that it is not Holy_Cross_Monastery_in_Jerusalem._Georgian_frescoes_01included.  There might be many things happening in your life, and it might pass you by, or you might fail to see the importance, but this Canticle of Zachary, is a great hymn of gratitude to God.  It allows us to discover the spirit around us, and it welcomes the new day-one fill with Love and Compassion of God’s unending Love.

Zachary found a reason to be grateful and to celebrate even though he was, for a moment, struck with a being “dumb” for his disbelief of God’s message.  But how can you be full of gratitude all the time?  Luke tells us that with the newly reinstated speech, Zachary was “filled with the Holy Spirit.”  It is important to know that the way forward is to always look with thanksgiving to what had come before. God had visited the people—“As he promised through the mouth of  His Holy Prophets from of old.”  Zachary recalls the promise to rescue the people of Abraham from their Zechariah_Prophetenemies.  This litany leads to a great celebration of those last of the great prophets who “will go before the Lord to prepare his ways.”   Zachary’s canticle radiates the new order the high priest’s own son; he will bridge the old and the new.  He will become the mouthpiece announcing the coming of the Messiah who is to come.

When you pray the Divine Office in the morning you are collected together with all the people of good will and recall the works of God.  You can NEVER have enough gratitude. This path of gratitude is a way of memory, recollecting the past, and creating a path forward to fully recognize God’s mission for each of us.

Benedictus Dominus Deus!



December 23, 2019-Reflection

Luke 1:57-66

The Birth of John

It is customary that when a child is born, the mother and father pray and give thanks to God for the gift of a new, happy, and healthy life.  This is no exception for Zachary and GratitudeElizabeth, as they were well beyond their child bearing years, and yet they had been blessed with a baby.  Not only were they now blessed with this gift of new life, they were also greeted with the notion that this young baby boy—John—would be someone with an important vocation, “For surely the hand of the Lord was with him.”   This was reaffirmed as Zachary had been struck “dumb”, but when he finally was able to speak, he spoke of the blessing that God had given to them.  God had truly been so good to them, and it was all such a welcomed and joyous gift.  They could not have known that the greatest gift of all was soon to be given.  The gift of the Father’s Son, Jesus Christ, would soon be upon them and the whole world.  He would soon come to begin His mission of salvation.

71PACgnfCdL._RI_Sometimes the words of “gratitude” and “thankfulness” are not easily found in our own vocabulary.  We often hear people refer to the act of “giving thanks to”, but never do we hear giving thanks because.  We forget that at times we fail to be thankful for what God has granted us.  When we see others that need more than we—we should not grumble but rather give thanks.  When we are interrupted because someone calls, or comes to see us—we should not become irritated, but rather to welcome it as a visit or call from Christ.  The Gospels tach us to have gratitude, to come to understand that all we have is a gift from God, and that we should always remain truly grateful for these gifts.

As we usher in the mystery and gift of the birth of Christ, let us try and have the grateful hearts of Elizabeth and Zachary who trusted that God would fulfill His promises to them.  May we, like them, remember that God owes us nothing, but He does give us everything!

Rejoice in the coming of the Savior!


December 22, 2019- Reflection

Luke 1:46-56

Canticle of Mary

Every evening the Canticle of Mary is heard.  It is heard with a sound love for Mary and for honoring our Lord and Savior.  As Mary is showing her gratitude of Love and Joy for the fulfillment of God’s promise to her, those Christians in union with Mary are showingChampaigne_visitation their undeniable joy and thanksgiving to God for his many gifts and graces each day.  Every day was met with a reversal: a sinner repents and is forgiven, the lonely hears a friend coming, those sick and infirmed begin to experience new life.  Even Mary herself comes to experience a reversal.  She experiences the notion of the empty being filled, the childless bearing children the virgin becoming the mother.

It was only a few days since Mary was visited and heard the prophesied divine proposal that she would bear a son.  Even though she was completely unaware of how it would come to be, she was confident that the Lord had a plan, and accepted this miraculous indwelling.  As she went to Elizabeth she was filled with a light of faith, but there was also the looming darkness of uncertainty.  Mary had no choice but to trust her God.  That He would fulfill his promise to her, even though there maxresdefaultwas never a confirmation that she was with child.  It was when Elizabeth told Mary that the child in her womb leapt with joy at the sound of her voice, that Mary was comforted that Her God was indeed great, and that the light of faith burned brightly.  The darkness of unknowing, mixed with a faint light of faith, resolves into the full light of knowledge: YES, the Lord is with me, within me!

Mary’s song is filled with praise and thanksgiving—arising from a heart which has witnessed a shift from faith seeking understanding to faith that knows and rejoices God’s goodness.  We each seek to know that truly the Lord resides within each of us, among us, and all around us.

Let your heart sing out with JOY!


©Dr. Lawrence V. McCrobie, Ed.D.-KHS

December 21, 2019-Reflection

Luke 1:39-45

Mary visits Elizabeth

Shout the good news far and wide!  When you win something, or are given a gift of great 1df5debb145ead27c44b3c541ea10f5bsignificance the first thing you do is go and tell someone.  We just simply desire to share good news and to do it in a spirited gratitude.  We also should in turn celebrate with those who have received good fortune—a sense of charity.

Mary, after assenting to Gabriel’s message from God that she would bear the Son of God through the Holy Spirit, hastily went to visit her relative Elizabeth.  She did this because Gabriel had made a promise that she would also bear a son in her old and barren state.  The infant son that Elizabeth was carrying began spirited movements when Mary arrived.  St Benedict termed this expansive movement of charity, joy, and gratitude as having “good zeal.”

john-baptist2bThese good zeal impelled Mary to take the Word to Elizabeth as swiftly as she could.  This is a act of bearing Christ to another, to share that message.  It is through zeal that baby John begins to react while inside of Elizabeth’s womb.  Later in life, John the Baptist will point to Jesus as the Messiah and will embody zeal.  A sense of good zeal towards others is highly contagious.  This type of gratitude can grab a person and pull them near and within a circle of trust.

Because of this, zeal is fueled by the daily receiving of God’s grace, mercy, and love through Word, Sacrament, and the Living Tradition of the Church.  Because of this gift that we each are given, we must then in return with GOOD ZEAL, share it to all that we encounter, and love others through the act of bearing and sharing Christ in every aspect of our life.

As we move closer to the birth of Christ, we should remind ourselves that the mission of sharing the good news and the charity that comes with it is something we are each the-return-of-jesus-is-near-must1called to do.  AS St benedict says in the Rule for monastic living, “As we progress in this way of life and in faith, we shall run on the path of God’s commandments, our hearts overflowing with the inexpressible delight of love” (Prologue: 49).

Shout for Joy, Christ is NEAR!


©Dr. Lawrence V. McCrobie

December 20, 2019-Reflection

Luke 1:26-38

Announcement of the Birth of Jesus

Luke shares with us a story that “Mary is greatly troubled at what was said” (Lk 1:39).  I think that this worry comes from the questions that must be going through her mind for up to this point she has had “no relations with a man” (Lk. 1:34).  Even with this worry 2014124745.jpgMary is able to shake off the worries that surely were coming to her in this instance and doing so with the understanding that God surely had a plan for her, and for this situation.   Mary is able to take God at His word, and with that trust the Word made flesh is dwelling within Mary—and is soon to be the Savior of the world.

As Catholics we refer to Mary’s answer to God as her “yes” or “fiat,” which is derived from the verb in Latin—from the phrase “Fiat mihi secundum verbuum tuum” (Lk 1:38).  The translation that is most common, and a good understanding of fiat in English is “Let it be.” Being that the ancient language of the Church is Hebrew, you might consider the Hebrew equivalent of fiat to be Amen.

Armed with this knowledge it is easy to understand that when we find ourselves in the line for communion, and before we receive the Body and Blood of Christ, we find ourselves in that same mysterious invitation that Mary received in Nazareth.   She gave her fiat and the Word is made flesh and she bears in her body the Body of her Savior.  We accept the reception of the Eucharist with an Amen before we are to individually innerlight1.jpgbear in our body the Body of our Savior.  This is why we are always greeted by the Priest with the words from the angel—“The Lord be with you” (cf. Lk. 1:28)—because it is at this sacrifice that we are also offered the opportunity to choose to carry Christ in our bodies, if we all could only understand this concept fully and would allow it to become our fiat.

God has a plan for each one of us.  If we are able to trust in Him and accept the role and plan He has for us we thus take Him at His word ad we give Him our word—of fiat our Amen, our Let it Be—then we shall dwell in him, and He shall dwell in us.


©Dr. Lawrence V. McCrobie, Ed.D.-KHS.